Words in History (Also known as vocabulary in other boring circles)

Ancient Rome
Republic - a nation in which all political power lies with the citizens, who elect leaders and representatives Roman-Senate.jpg
Senate - the supreme council of the government during the republic and the empire
Patrician - in ancient Rome a member of the small class of wealthy familes
Plebian - in ancient Rome a member of the large class of citizens who could be artisans, farmers or labors
Dictator - a ruler who has absolute power
Pax Romana - a period of over 200 years (27 BC to AD 180) that the Roman Empire was for the most part united and at peace; begins with the reign of Augustus Caesar
Aqueduct - a bridge-like structure built to carry water from a distant source, from the mountains to a city such as Rome
Latin - the language of the ancient Romans; the basis of today's Romance languages, which have greatly influenced the English language
Pagan - to early Christians a person who is not a Christian or Jew
Christianity - the Christian religion founded on the teachings of Jesus and influenced by St. Paul
Barbarian - in ancient Rome a person from beyond th Roman frontier; a person considered by another group to be uncivilized
Consul - either of the two main elected officials of the Roman Republic
Debt Bondage - in ancient Rome a status in which a poor person became an unpaid servant to a wealthy person to whom they owed money
Assassinate - to murder someone, especially for political reasons
Province - a terrritory governed as a unit within a country or empire; any of the lands outside Italy conquered and ruled by the Romans










Ancient Greece

City-state - a self-governing unit made up of a city and it's surrounding villages and farmland
Polis - Greek word for city-state
Oligarchy - a system of government in which a few individuals rule, non-hereditary
Agora – a marketplace in ancient Greece, commonly used as a meeting place
Acropolis – highest point of a Greek city-state often fortified or had a temple built on it dedicated to the city’s patron god; the most famous acropolis being the one in Athens
Parthenon – temple dedicated to the patron god of Athens, Athena; built on the Acropolis in Athens; symbol of Athenian power
Helot – a state slave in the ancient city-state of Sparta
Metic – a non-citizen who lived in Athens; a foreigner living in Athens
Alliance –a formal union between nations joined in a common cause
Conquest – the defeat of a nation or group, usually by force
Colony - a territory ruled over by a distant state
Monarchy –a system of government which a monarch – a king, queen or emperor – is the sole and absolute ruler
Oligarchy – a system of government in which a few people rule, usually wealthy landowners
Tyrant or tyranny - a ruler has total power, not limited by a constitution or by other officials
Democracy - a system of government in which the people rule, either directly or through elected representatives
Iliad/Odyssey – epic poems that tell the story of the Trojan War and Odysseus’ return from the war; oral traditions believed to be first written down by the Homer
Homer – Greek poet and “bard”; a bard was a person that traveled from place to place telling stories or oral traditions; no proof he was a historical person or wrote the poems greece_parthenon.jpg
Sanctuary – a place of worship such as a church, temple, or mosque
Tragedy – a serious drama in which the hero is brought to defeat by a character flaw
Comedy – a humorous play that has a happy ending
Philosopher – a person who seeks wisdom through intellectual means and moral discipline
Hellenistic Age – Greek-like; relating to Greek history and culture from the time of Alexander’s rule; from 334 B.C.E. to 164 B.C.E.




Ancient Israaelites

Monotheism - the belief that there is oonly one godCanaan - land along eastern Mediterranean Sea coast; some fertile parts; located along trade routes; a place where three continents meet; battlefield for expanding empires; the Promised Land for Israelites by their GodJudaism - the monotheistic religion of the Jewish peopleHebrews - the descendants of Abraham; a nation of people who make a covenant with their God; later to be known as Israelties and JewsPlague - highly contagious disease that spreads easily; often deadlyExodus - the departure of the Israelites from EgyptCovenant - an agreement between two or more people; also between a group of people and their godTorah - means "God's teaching"; the first five books of the Bible; contains laws and practices for JudaismIsraelites - the descendants of the Hebrews; later to be known as Jews; Hebrews become known as Israelites after the patriarch Jacob has his named changed to IsraelExile - enforced absence from one's own countryDiaspora - Jewish settlements scattered among the gentiles or non-Jews; begins after the Jews released from captivity in BabylonBible - means "the books"; a collection of laws, teachings, practices, stories/history, poems of Jewish or Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and also Christian Bible (Old and New Testaments)



Ancient Egypt
Cataracts - steep rapid in a river; a very large waterfall; there are 6 along the Nile River
Delta - a triangle-shaped deposit of soil near the mouth or a river; the Nile Delta is at the Mediterranean SeaPapyrus - a long thin reed; also the paper-like writing material made by ancient Egyptians from the reed's pithDynasty - a series of rulers from the same familyAfterlife - according to some beliefs, the life that follows death giza_Platue.jpgEmbalming - to prevent the decay of a body by treating it with preservativesMummy/Mummification - a dead body embalmed in the manner of the ancient EgyptiansHieroglyphs - the ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictorial symbols stand for words or soundsPharaoh - a ruler or king of ancient EgyptRosetta Stone - considered the key to decoding hieroglyphics; a black stone slab with three different kinds of writing on it, Greek, cursive Egyptian or also called demotic, and Egyptian hieroglyphs; decoded by Jean Champollion in 1822Obelisk - a tall four-sided stone pillar that tapers to a point like a pyramid; often dedicated to the sun god Amon-Ra or ReCult Temples - buildings dedicated to certain gods where priests would perform ceremonies to honor the gods and gain their favor in life; ceremonies include food offerings and a shrine room where a statue representing the god would be washed and clothedMortuary Temples - buildings dedicated to a deceased pharaoh; pharaohs were considered gods on Earth and gods in the afterlife; ceremonies performed by priests at these temples were done in order to maintain the pharaoh's afterlifeMa'at - refers to the goddess Ma'at and the concept or idea of justice, harmony, peace and truth; the pharaoh's responsibility was to maintain Ma'at in the physical world and the universe, such as the yearly flood of the Nile River and the rise of the sun god Ra each day; it was the responsibility of all Egyptians to maintain Ma'at spiritually in themselves and between each other.




Mesopotamia

Plateau - a flat elevated area of land
Plain - an area of flat, open land
City-state - a self governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland
Nomad - one of a group of people who migratewith their flocks and herds; moving with the seasons to find pasture and water hammurabi_stele.jpg
Administrator - a person who manages or directs a government or organization
Artisan - a worker who is skilled by making a particular product by hand
Epic - a long poem about a hero
Polytheism - the belief in more than one god
Pictographs - a picture that stands for a word or idea; picture writing
Cuneiform - wedge-shaped characters made with a reed stylus and used in writing several ancient languages
Scribe - a professional writer or record keeper
Empire - a nation and other nations it has conquered; a political unit often made up of several nations under one authority
Code - an organized set of laws or rules





Neolithic AgeIrrigation - the act of supplying dry lands with water, by means of canals, ditches, pipes and streamAgriculture - the science, art and business of raising animals and plants to supply food for humans; farming Domesticate - to train or adapt an animal or plant to live in a human environment, making it more useful to humans
Surplus - an extra amount; more than is needed early_man_lascaux.jpg
Shrine - a place where people worship, usually containing a sacred object or statue
Famine - a widespread shortage of food that threatens death from starvation
Self-sufficient - able to provide for oneself without the help of others
Civilization - a complex society with a stable food supply, specialization of labor, system of government, social levels
and a highly developed culture